Some Information about Shingle Roofing
The kind of roofing with covering that composes of individual overlapping elements is shingle roofing. The elements in roof shingle are laid in courses from the edge of the roof going up, with every successive course overlapping the joints beneath it, and these elements are usually flat and rectangular in shapes. You will find shingles in different materials, from wood, slate, flagstone, metal, plastic, and composite materials like fibre cement and asphalt shingles. The common roof material in Europe and some parts in Asia are the ceramic roof tiles called simply tiles.
Almost always, roof shingles are very visible, thus this aspect of a building is very important especially where aesthetics is concern with reference to patterns, textures and colors. The materials of roof shingles are usually available in your locality, just like other building materials on vernacular buildings. Since the material affects the pitch of the roof and its construction method, the type of shingle is being considered before construction begins. While other shingles can be installed on lath, some would need sheathing that is solid on the roof deck. Beginning with a starter course and edge seams offset to avoid leakings, note that all shingle roofs are to be installed from the bottom upward. Especially in cold climates when snow, ice dams, wind and rain would occur, it would benefit shingle installations to be placed on top of an underlayment material such as asphalt felt paper to prevent leaks. Note that one feature that would influence the use of roof shingles are its fire rating, where some are rated non-combustible over the others, thus building codes do not allow the use of less class-A fire rating of shingles on some kinds of buildings. Wood shingles and organic based asphalt shingles have become less common in use compared to fiberglass-based asphalt shingles because of the increased fire hazard. The minimum recommended roof pitch of shingles is 4:12 with no underlayment material under it since shingles are not water-tight.
In a country like the United States, the most common roofing by far is fiberglass-based asphalt shingles as being used for residential roofing applications. The much less common are the bitumen roof shingles or tile strips, which are used in Europe, are easy to install, relatively affordable, and could last 20 to 50 years.
The protection of paper and fiberglass asphalt shingles comes from the long-chain petroleum carbons, while it is the natural oils in the cellulose structure that protects the wood shingles, and the are important characteristics to take note when choosing your roof shingles.
Shingles are further made of other materials such as stone, fiber cement, metal, plastic and cedar shingles.